These are some terms that I have come across while doing genealogical research.  I wasn't necessarily certain of their meaning at the time I first encountered them, but have since learned their meanings.  I will be adding to this list as I find new terms and their definitions.
blogging prompt
A blogging prompt is a word, phrase or question designed to become the basis of a new blog post. The idea is that by using these prompts, blogs will be updated more often because the prompt will get the blogger to think about and then subsequently write a post on the subject. The posts resulting from a large number of daily blogging prompts are aggregated at GeneaBloggers. These include:
  • Monday:
    • Amanuensis Monday - transcriptions of documents, audio/video recordings, letters, journals, etc.
    • Madness Monday - about ancestors in your research who had a connection to mental health issues or for whom the research "drives you mad."
    • Mappy Monday - maps and their uses in genealogical research.
    • Maritime Monday - any connection in genealogical research to the sea.
    • Matrilineal Monday - examining the female lines in genealogical research.
    • Military Monday - information and research about military service in the family.
    • Mobile Monday - describing how mobile technologies have been or are are currently being used or how you would like to use them in genealogical research.
    • Motivation Monday - describe what motivates you to research or set and report on goals for your research.
    • Mystery Monday - can be considered related to Madness Monday, but here we look at the unsolved questions and problems in genealogical research.
  • Tuesday:
    • Talented Tuesday
    • Tech Tuesday
    • Tombstone Tuesday
    • Tuesday's Tip
  • Wednesday:
    • Wedding Wednesday
    • Wednesday's Child
    •  Wisdom Wednesday
    • Wordless Wednesday
  • Thursday:
    • Thankful Thursday
    • Those Places Thursday
    • Thriller Thursday
    • Treasure Chest Thursday
  • Friday:
    • Family Recipe Friday
    • Follow Friday
    • Friend of Friends Friday
    • Funeral Card Friday
  • Saturday:
    • Shopping Saturday
    • Sorting Saturday
    • Sports Center Saturday
    • Surname Saturday - examine one surname in your research.
    • Sympathy Saturday
  • Sunday:
    • Black Sheep Sunday - ancestors that have a connection to legal problems.
    • Church Record Sunday
    • Sentimental Sunday
    • Sunday's Obituary
When I first encountered this term, I thought it had to do with rope making. I've seen it listed as an occupation in 19th century census records. According to the Wikipedia article about this occupation, a cordwainer is someone who works with soft leather in the manufacture of shoes and other items. 
An administrative and political subdivision of a country.  This term was more commonly used in governments that have historically French governments, such as many of the former French colonies.  France itself still uses the department system to form political boundaries within the country; the Wikipedia page for the Departments of France has an overview, general history and complete list of the current departments.
This term is associated with various areas of present day Germany.  It is not a town, but literally translates as "Grand Duchy of".
Like Grosherzogthum above, this term is associated with the early lands of modern Germany.  It literally translates as "Duchy of".
A small village in Essex, north of London, England.
This word may seem innocuous, but depending on its usage, it can provide a great lead in genealogical research. For example, in the sentence "In 1881, Bill married Jane Booker of Germantown" the term "of" indicates that Jane was probably either a resident of Germantown or she may have been born there or otherwise originates from that town some time before 1881. Regardless, it provides a connection between a person and a place before a certain date.